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Annals of Glaciology
Volume 13

Proceedings of the Symposium on Snow and Glacier Research Relating to Human Living Conditions

held at Lom, Norway,
4-9 September 1988
Cover: Annals Vol. 13

Editor: B. Wold

Contents

1-5
The management of sediment transported by glacial melt-water streams and its significance for the estimation of sediment yield
A. Bezinge, M.J. Clark, A.M. Gurnell and J. Warburton

6-11
Glacial sediment production and development of hydro-electric power in glacierized areas
Jim Bogen

12-15
Simulation of run-off from the Greenland ice sheet for planning hydro-electric power, Ilulissat/Jakobshavn, West Greenland
Roger J. Braithwaite and Henrik Højmark Thomsen

16-19
Six years of snow-fence testing in France
G. Brugnot

20-21
Recommendations for the safe use of ropeways carrying explosives in avalanche blasting
Gérard Brugnot and François Rapin

22-26
Investigation on wet-snow metamorphism in respect of liquid-water content
E. Brun

27-30
Avalanche starting-zone analysis by use of a knowledge-based system
Laurent Buisson and Claude Charlier

31-34
Two years experience of operational avalanche forecasting using the nearest neighbour method
O. Buser

35-39
The agricultural use of melt water in Hopar settlement, Pakistan
David Butz

40-44
Measurements of friction coefficients of snow blocks
G. Casassa, H. Narita and N. Maeno

45-50
Seasonal development of subglacial drainage and suspended sediment delivery to melt waters beneath an Alpine glacier
D.N. Collins

51-55
Glacier outburst floods at Mount Rainier, Washington State, U.S.A.
Carolyn L. Driedger and Andrew G. Fountain

56-63
Spatial and temporal variation of net snow accumulation in a small alpine watershed, Emerald Lake basin, Sierra Nevada, California, U.S.A.
K. Elder, J. Dozier and J. Michaelsen

64-68
Quantifying the errors involved in transferring suspended sediment rating equations across ablation seasons
C.R. Fenn

69-75
The storage of water in, and hydraulic characteristics of, the firn of South Cascade Glacier, Washington State, U.S.A.
Andrew G. Fountain

76-81
Forecasting the effects of a planned reservoir which will partially flood the tongue of Unteraargletscher in Switzerland
Martin Funk and Hans Röthlisberger

82-89
Comparison of three models of avalanche dynamics
H. Gubler

90-95
A model of initial failure in slab-avalanche release
H. Gubler and H.-P. Bader

96-102
Assessing risks from glacier hazards in high mountain regions: some experiences in the Swiss Alps
W. Haeberli, J.-C. Alean, P. Müller and M. Funk

103-108
Hydrological investigations at Biafo Glacier, Karakorum Range, Himalaya; an important source of water for the Indus River
K. Hewitt, C.P. Wake, G.J. Young and C. David

109-116
Numerical, analytical, and laboratory experimental studies of granular avalanche flows
Kolumban Hutter, Stuart B. Savage and Yasuaki Nohguchi

117-119
Development and certification of a visibility-range monitor by image processing
Keishi Ishimoto, Masao Takeuchi, Shigeyuki Naitou and Haruki Furusawa

120-123
Effects of solar radiation on the formation of weak wet snow
Kaoru Izumi

124-128
Spatial variability of snow-pack outflow at a site in Sierra Nevada, U.S.A.
Richard Kattelmann

129-134
Experimental studies on a powder-snow avalanche
K. Kawada, K. Nishimura and N. Maeno

135-139
A possible radio-echo method of locating englacial and subglacial waterways
Michael I. Kennett

140-145
Supporting forces and stability of snow-slab avalanches: a parameter study
Bernhard Lackinger

146-153
Flow characteristics of an unconstrained, non-cohesive, granular medium down an inclined, curved surface: preliminary experimental results
R.M. Lang, B.R. Leo and K. Hutter

154-158
Snow-creep pressure on masts
Jan Otto Larsen, Jens Laugesen and Krister Kristensen

159-163
Past and forecast fluctuations of Glacier Blanc (French Alps)
Anne Letréguilly and Louis Reynaud

164-169
Calculation of maximum snow-avalanche run-out distance by use of digital terrain models
K. Lied and R. Toppe

170-174
Snow-avalanche maps for use by the Norwegian army
K. Lied, F. Sandersen and R. Toppe

175-179
Effects of structure boundary conditions and snow-pack properties on snow-creep pressures
D.M. McClung and J.O. Larsen

180-184
Extreme avalanche run-out: data from four mountain ranges
D.M. McClung, A.I. Mears and P.A. Schaerer

185-188
Impacts of glacier-related landslides on the settlement at Hopar, Karakorum Himalaya
K.I. MacDonald

189-194
Advance of Hubbard Glacier and 1986 outburst of Russell Fiord, Alaska, U.S.A.
Lawrence R. Mayo

195-201
Influence of strong winds on snow distribution and avalanche activity
R. Meister

202-206
Contribution of viscous forces to avalanche dynamics
K. Nishimura and N. Maeno

207-210
The internal structure of powder-snow avalanches
K. Nishimura, H. Narita, N. Maeno and K. Kawada

211-214
A mathematical model for instability in snow gliding motion
Yasuaki Nohguchi

215-217
Three-dimensional equations for mass centre motion of an avalanche of arbitrary configuration
Yasuaki Nohguchi

218-225
Simulation of snow-avalanche flow in run-out zones
Harald Norem, Fridtjov Irgens and Bonsak Schieldrop

226-230
Slush-flow questionnaire
Lawrence J. Onesti and Erik Hestnes

231-236
Assessing avalanche-risk levels on walking tracks in Fiordland, New Zealand
I.F. Owens and B.B. Fitzharris

237-240
A process-based model of snow drifting
J.W. Pomeroy

241-247
The avalanche-hazard index
Peter Schaerer

248-251
Snow-collection mechanisms and the capacities of snow fences
Masao Takeuchi

252-256
Temporal changes of glacier hydrological systems indicated by isotopic and related observations at Austre Okstindbreen, Okstindan, Norway, 1976-87
Wilfred H. Theakstone and N. Tvis Knudsen

257-261
Applied glacier research for planning hydro-electric power, Ilulissat/Jakobshavn, West Greenland
H.H. Thomsen, L. Thorning and O.B. Olesen

262-264
Floods caused by a glacier-dammed lake at the Folgefonni Ice Cap, Norway
Arve M. Tvede

265-268
Numerical simulation of snowdrift development
T. Uematsu, Y. Kaneda, K. Takeuchi, T. Nakata and M. Yukumi

269-272
Forty years of mass-balance observations on Glacier de Sarennes, French Alps
François Valla

273-278
Evolution, water balance, potential hazards, and control of a pro-glacial lake in the French Alps
M. Vallon

279-284
Glaciochemical investigations as a tool for determining the spatial and seasonal variation of snow accumulation in the central Karakorum, northern Pakistan
Cameron P. Wake

285-288
Effects of spatial and temporal variation in snow melt on nitrate ion and sulfate ion pulses in melt waters within an alpine basin
Mark W. Williams and John M. Melack

289-293
Ice loss in the ablation area of a Himalayan glacier; studies on Miar Glacier, Karakorum Mountains, Pakistan
G.J. Young and J.P. Schmok

294
Abstract
Saltation and suspension of snow by wind: a general theory
Robert S. Anderson

295
Abstract
Paleohydraulic modelling of outburst floods from Neoglacial Lake Alsek, Yukon Territory, Canada
Garry K.C. Clarke

296
Abstract
Isotopic fractionation in a snow-water system
M. Nakawo and S. Chiba

296
Abstract
Using stable isotopes for delineation of drainage basins on the Greenland ice-sheet margin for use in planning hydro-electric power supply, Ilulissat/Jakobshavn, West Greenland
Niels Reeh and Henrik Højmark Thomsen

297-298
Abstract
Combined measurements of water and sediment discharges and surface velocity of Midtdalsbreen, Norway
Ian Willis