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Annals of Glaciology
Volume 18

Proceedings of the Symposium on Snow and Snow-related Problems

held in Nagaoka, Japan,
14-18 September 1992
Cover: Annals Vol. 18

Editor: S.C. Colbeck

Contents

1-6
Snow avalanche runout from two Canadian mountain ranges
D.J. Nixon and D.M. McClung

7-10
Connectivity of snow particles
K. Itagaki and G.E. Lemieux

11-16
A computer data base for falling snowflakes
Ken-Ichiro Muramoto, Kohki Matsuura, Toshio Harimaya and Tatsuo Endoh

17-21
Simulation of a destructive avalanche at Maseguchi, Japan
D.M. McClung, S. Kobayashi and K. Izumi

22-26
A one-dimensional model of the evolution of snow-cover characteristics
Takeshi Yamazaki, Junsei Kondo, Takashi Sakuraoka and Toru Nakamura

27-32
A striped pattern of snowfall and snow cover
Yasuaki Nohguchi, Takashi Ikarashi, Osamu Abe and Atsushi Sato

33-38
Measuring sea-ice concentration and floe-size distribution by image processing
Ken-Ichiro Muramoto, Kohki Matsuura and Tatsuo Endoh

39-45
Depth-hoar crystal growth in the surface layer under high temperature gradient
Takuya Fukuzawa and Eizi Akitaya

46-52
Computer applications for avalanche forecasting in the United States
Bruce Tremper and Rand Decker

53-59
Energy budget comparison of snowmelt rates in a deciduous forest and an open site
T. Ohta, T. Hashimoto and H. Ishibashi

60-64
Development of a snow-fraction meter based on the conductometric method
Takuo Kitahara, Masataka Shirakashi and Yasuhiro Kajio

65-71
A meteorological estimation of relevant parameters for snow models
Y. Durand, E. Brun, L. M‚rindol, G. Guyomarc'h, B. Lesaffre and E. Martin

72-78
Proposition of a net-like model of snow
Zempachi Watanabe

79-84
Theoretical approach describing the thermal regime of snow-covered sea ice
Nobuo Ono and Maxim S. Krass

85-91
Temporal changes in chemical stratigraphy of snow cover
Kumiko Goto-Azuma, Masayoshi Nakawo, Masujiro Shimizu, Nobuhiko Azuma, Michio Nakayama and Kotaro Yokoyama

92-96
An accurate measurement of densities of snowflakes using 3-D microphotographs
Masaaki Ishizaka

97-101
Sea-ice growth in Ongul Strait, Antarctica
Toshiyuki Kawamura, Kay I. Ohshima, Syuki Ushio and Takatoshi Kakizawa

102-106
Analysis of powder-snow avalanches using three-dimensional topographic data
Yusuke Fukushima and Norio Hayakawa

107-112
Development of a meteorological forecast for snow accumulation on transmission lines
Tatsuhito Ito, Masaru Yamaoka, Hisayuki Ohura, Takashi Tanaguchi and Gorow Wakahama

113-116
An automatic system for controlling snow on roofs
Moriaki Tamura

117-122
Investigations of internal structure and transformational processes from firn to ice in a perennial snow patch
Katsuhisa Kawashima, Tomomi Yamada and Gorow Wakahama

123-128
Avalanche modelling and integration of expert knowledge in the ELSA system
Laurent Buisson and Claude Charlier

129-134
Isotopic fractionation during grain coarsening of wet snow
Masayoshi Nakawo, Shigeru Chiba, Hiroshi Satake and Shigeru Kinouchi

135-141
Numerical study on snow transport and drift formation
Takahiko Uematsu

142-148
A case study of snowstorm gusts and blowing/drifting snow
Masayuki Maki, Sento Nakai, Tsuruhei Yagi and Hideomi Nakamura

149-154
Field test of a new snow-particle counter (SPC) system
Takeshi Sato, Tadashi Kimura, Taminoe Ishimaru and Toshisuke Maruyama

155-160
Areal investigation of drifting snow on Tsugaru Plain, Japan
Masao Higashiura, Takeshi Sato, Atsushi Sato, Tadashi Kimura, Masayuki Maki, Sento Nakai, Hideomi Nakamura and Tsuruhei Yagi

161-165
Some numerical experiments on firn ventilation with heat transfer
M.R. Albert

166-172
The relationship between seasonal snow cover in Japan and recent climatic change
Motoki Nishimori and Ryuichi Kawamura

173-178
Structures of snow cloud in dry-snow avalanches
K. Nishimura, N. Maeno, K. Kawada and K. Izumi

179-184
Estimated seasonal snow cover and snowfall in Japan
Tsutomu Nakamura and Osamu Abe

185-189
Evaluation of the snow-removal options in an urban area based on the preferences of inhabitants
Kazuhiro Miyakoshi and Shoji Matsumoto

190-192
Estimating the weight of a snow cover using only meterological factors
Kenji Shinojima and Hiroshi Harada

193-198
The influence of the layered character of snow cover on the triggering of slab avalanches
Jürg Schweizer

199-202
Transformation process observations of polar firn to ice
Chester C. Langway, Jr., Hitoshi Shoji, Atau Mitani and Henrik B. Clausen

203-207
On the initiation of ice sheets
Ayako Abe-Ouchi and Heinz Blatter

208-210
Crystal growth rates in polar firn
Hitoshi Shoji, Atau Mitani, Kohji Horita and Chester C. Langway, Jr.

211-214
Development of an automatic, storage precipitation gauge for improved winter precipitation measurements
Thomas Wiesinger, Shinichi Takami, Hiroyuki Ohno and Kotaro Yokoyama

215-220
The dynamic friction characteristics of a rapidly sheared granular material applied to the motion of snow avalanches
J.D. Dent

221-226
Flow, flow transition and runout distances of flowing avalanches
B. Salm

227-233
Chemical characteristics of snow in the region along the Sea of Japan
Kazuhide Satow

234-238
A theoretical prediction of the effects of electrostatic forces on saltating snow particles
Scott Schmidt and J.D. Dent

239-244
Estimating snow avalanche runout distances from topographic data
K. Fujisawa, R. Tsunaki and I. Kamiishi

245-250
Model project for establishing an avalanche warning and evacuation system
Hideki Terada, Kazunori Fujisawa, Yoshimitsu Nakamura and Noriyuki Minami

251-256
Air-gap formation by snow melting
Yasuaki Nohguchi

257-260
Influence of climatic warming on the amount of snow cover and water quality of Lake Biwa, Japan
Hiroji Fushimi

261-267
Structure and wind transport of seasonal snow on the Arctic slope of Alaska
Carl S. Benson and Matthew Sturm

268-273
Shear frame stability parameters for large-scale avalanche forecasting
J.B. Jamieson and C.D. Johnston

274-280
Application of a mixture theory to stress waves in snow
George E. Austiguy Jr. and Robert L. Brown

281-286
A two-dimensional computational model of turbulent atmospheric surface flows with drifting snow
G.E. Liston, R.L. Brown and J.D. Dent

287-294
A microstructure-based constitutive law for snow
Puneet Mahajan and Robert L. Brown

295-299
A statistical model for maximum avalanche run-out distance in southwest Montana
L.R. McKittrick and R.L. Brown

300-304
Model for effective thermal conductivity of a dry snow cover composed of uniform ice spheres
Edward E. Adams and Atsushi Sato

305-308
Passive-microwave remote sensing of snow
Tosio Koike and Tomoyuki Suhama

309-312
Comparison of snow-removal technologies practised in the cities along the Sea of Japan
Norio Hayakawa, Teruyoshi Umemura and Yusuke Fukushima

313-316
Observations of the dynamic structure of snow avalanches
K. Nishimura, N. Maeno, F. Sandersen, K. Kristensen, H. Norem and K. Lied

317-321
New methods to study snowfall using remote sensing
Tosio Koike, Iwao Goto, Norio Hayakawa and Kazuto Wakatsuki

322
Abstract
Snow accretion on, and removal from, railway car bodies
Toshishige Fujii, Toru Endo and Toshiaki Imai

322-323
Abstract
Feasibility study of a "snow dam" concept
Norio Hayakawa, Tosio Koike and Isao Kamishima

323-324
Abstract
Use of Gaz.ex for Japan's central mountains
Isao Kamiishi, Akimichi Iiyoshi, Norio Hayakawa and Kunio Kawada

324
Abstract
Experiments on a snow-melting system using circulating low-temperature fluid
Katsunori Nagano, Kiyoshi Ochifuji and Makoto Nakamura

325-326
Abstract
Estimation of snow damage in an urban area with heavy snowfall
Seiji Kamimura and Teruyoshi Umemura

326-327
Abstract
Utilization of snow with a snow compactor
Nobuo Miyazaki, Tosiyuki Harada, Sigeru Kondou and Tatsuo Hasemi

327
Abstract
Geomorphological features and distribution of avalanche furrows in heavy snow regions in Japan
Tatsuo Sekiguchi, Masanori Sugiyama and Tadao Hoya

328
Abstract
Transformation of snow damage and its societal background in recent Japan
Natsuo Numano

328-329
Abstract
Snow removal and de-icing using long flexible heat pipes
M. Shiraishi, M. Mochizuki, S. Sugihara, Y. Yamagishi and F. Watanabe

329-330
Abstract
Snowmelt runoff analysis using estimated distribution of snow water equivalent
Shigemi Hatta, Tosio Koike, Minjiao Lu and Norio Hayakawa