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Annals of Glaciology
Volume 33

Papers from the
International Symposium on Sea Ice and its Interactions with the Ocean, Atmosphere and Biosphere

held in Fairbanks, Alaska, U.S.A.,
18–23 June 2000
Cover: Annals Vol. 33

Editors: M.O. Jeffries and H. Eicken

Contents

1–4
Time-series observations of the structure and properties of brackish ice in the Gulf of Finland
T. Kawamura, K. Shirasawa, N. Ishikawa, A. Lindfors, K. Rasmus, M. Granskog, J. Ehn, M. Leppäranta, T. Martma and R. Vaikmäe

5–12
Structure of sea ice in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica
Stephen J. Jones and Brian T. Hill

13–20
Chlorinity/salinity distribution patterns in experimental granular sea ice
J.-L. Tison and V. Verbeke

21–27
Platelet ice and the land-fast sea ice of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica
Inga J. Smith, Patricia J. Langhorne, Timothy G. Haskell, H. Joe Trodahl, Russell Frew and M. Ross Vennell

28–36
Brine percolation and the transport properties of sea ice
K.M. Golden

37–44
Phase and compositional evolution of the flooded layer during snow-ice formation on Antarctic sea ice
Ted Maksym and Martin O. Jeffries

45–50
Snow-ice growth: a fresh-water flux inhibiting deep convection in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica
V.I. Lytle and S.F. Ackley

51–60
Snow-ice accretion and snow-cover depletion on Antarctic first-year sea-ice floes
Martin O. Jeffries, H. Roy Krouse, Barbara Hurst-Cushing and Ted Maksym

61–68
Seasonal contrasts in snow-cover characteristics on Ross Sea ice floes
Kim Morris and Martin O. Jeffries

69–73
The seasonal cycle of ERS scatterometer signatures over perennial Antarctic sea ice and associated surface ice properties and processes
Christian Haas

74–78
Spatial and temporal variability in snowmelt onset over Arctic sea ice
Mark R. Anderson and Sheldon D. Drobot

79–84
Comparison of interannual snowmelt-onset dates with atmospheric conditions
Sheldon D. Drobot and Mark R. Anderson

85–93
The onset of Arctic sea-ice snowmelt as detected with passive- and active-microwave remote sensing
Richard R. Forster, David G. Long, Kenneth C. Jezek, Sheldon D. Drobot and Mark R. Anderson

94–100
Determining the floe-size distribution of East Antarctic sea ice from digital aerial photographs
M.J. Paget, A.P. Worby and K.J. Michael

102–108
Evaluation of operational SSM/I ice-concentration algorithms
Walter N. Meier, Michael L. Van Woert and Cheryl Bertoia

109–114
Sea-ice concentration retrieval in the Antarctic based on the SSM/I 85.5 GHz polarization
Stefan Kern and Georg Heygster

115–119
CRL/NASDA airborne SAR (Pi-SAR) observations of sea ice in the Sea of Okhotsk
Takeshi Matsuoka, Seiho Uratsuka, Makoto Satake, Tatsuharu Kobayashi, Akitsugu Nadai, Toshihiko Umehara, Hideo Maeno, Hiroyuki Wakabayashi, Kazuki Nakamura and Fumihiko Nishio

120–124
Estimation of sea-ice physical parameters using polarimetric SAR: results from Okhotsk and Lake Saroma campaign
Hiroyuki Wakabayashi, Takeshi Matsuoka, Kazuki Nakamura and Fumihiko Nishio

125–132
Combined satellite- and ULS-derived sea-ice flux in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica
Mark R. Drinkwater, Xiang Liu and Sabine Harms

133–138
Principal-component analysis of sea-ice motion from satellite data
Yunhe Zhao and Antony K. Liu

139–144
A comparison of East Antarctic sea-ice motion derived using drifting buoys and remote sensing
P. Heil, C.W. Fowler, J.A. Maslanik, W.J. Emery and I. Allison

145–150
Synoptic-scale ice-motion case-studies using assimilated motion fields
Walter N. Meier and James A. Maslanik

151–156
Sea-ice kinematics measured with GPS drifters
Matti Leppäranta, Zhanhai Zhang, Jari Haapala and Tapani Stipa

157–164
Modeling the formation and evolution of oriented fractures in sea ice
W.D. Hibler, III

165–170
Arctic sea-ice morphological characteristics in summer 1996
P. Wadhams and N.R. Davis

171–176
Seasonal changes in Arctic sea-ice morphology
Donald K. Perovich, Jacqueline A. Richter-Menge and Walter B. Tucker, III

177–180
Seasonal development of sea-ice thickness distribution in East Antarctica: measurements from upward-looking sonar data
A.P. Worby, G.M. Bush and I. Allison

181–186
Introduction of variable drag coefficients into sea-ice models
Nadja Steiner

187–193
Sea-ice thickness and roughness in the Ross Sea, Antarctica
Tina Tin and Martin O. Jeffries

194–200
Indirect measurements of the mass balance of summer Arctic sea ice with an electromagnetic induction technique
H. Eicken, W.B. Tucker, III and D.K. Perovich

201–206
Summer ice dynamics during SHEBA and its effect on the ocean heat content
Jackie A. Richter-Menge, Donald K. Perovich and Scott Pegau

207–211
Temporal evolution of Arctic sea-ice temperature
Donald K. Perovich and Bruce C. Elder

213–220
Spatial variations in the winter heat flux at SHEBA: estimates from snow–ice interface temperatures
Matthew Sturm, Jon Holmgren and Donald K. Perovich

221–224
The albedo of Arctic leads in summer
W. Scott Pegau and Clayton A. Paulson

225–229
Arctic sea-ice albedo derived from RGPS-based ice-thickness estimates
R.W. Lindsay

230–236
Characteristics of the surface heat budget during the ice-growth season in the southern Sea of Okhotsk
Takenobu Toyota and Masaaki Wakatsuchi

237–242
Turbulent surface fluxes and air–ice coupling in Baltic–Air–Sea–Ice Study (BASIS)
Jouko Launiainen, Cheng Bin, Juha Uotila and Timo Vihma

243–247
Modelling sea-ice thermodynamics in BALTEX-BASIS
Bin Cheng, Jouko Launiainen, Timo Vihma and Juha Uotila

248–252
Spatial variability of the sea-ice radiation budget and its effect on aggregate-area fluxes
Xuanji Wang and Jeffrey R. Key

253–260
An efficient adjustable-layering thermodynamic sea-ice model formulation for high-frequency forcing
Jinro Ukita and Douglas G. Martinson

261–266
Solar radiative heating in first-year sea ice
M.J. McGuinness, K.A. Landman, H.J. Trodahl and A.E. Pantoja

267–274
Measurement of all-wave and spectral albedos of snow-covered summer sea ice in the Ross Sea, Antarctica
Xiaobing Zhou, Shusun Li and Kim Morris

275–279
The surface energy budget in the Antarctic summer sea-ice pack
Gerd Wendler and Anthony P. Worby

280–286
Biomass, production and microhabitat characteristics near the freeboard of ice floes in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, during the austral summer
Christian H. Fritsen, Susan L. Coale, Diann R. Neenan, Angela H. Gibson and David L. Garrison

287–296
Vertical zonation and community transition of sea-ice diatoms in fast ice and platelet layer, Weddell Sea, Antarctica
Sven Gnther and Gerhard S. Dieckmann

297–303
Dissolved organic matter in Antarctic sea ice
David N. Thomas, Gerhard Kattner, Ralph Engbrodt, Virginia Giannelli, Hilary Kennedy, Christian Haas and Gerhard S. Dieckmann

304–310
A microscopic approach to investigate bacteria under in situ conditions in sea-ice samples
Karen Junge, Christopher Krembs, Jody Deming, Aaron Stierle and Hajo Eicken

311–316
Observations on sea-ice and surface-water geochemistry --- implications for importance of sea ice in geochemical cycles in the northern Baltic Sea
M.A. Granskog and J. Virkanen

317–321
Behaviour of dissolved organic matter and inorganic nutrients during experimental sea-ice formation
Virginia Giannelli, David N. Thomas, Christian Haas, Gerhard Kattner, Hilary Kennedy and Gerhard S. Dieckmann

322–326
Calculation of wave propagation into land-fast ice
Hyuck Chung and Colin Fox

327–332
How a region of cracked sea ice affects ice-coupled wave propagation
Vernon A. Squire and Tony W. Dixon

333–338
Lifetime estimation for a land-fast ice sheet subjected to ocean swell
P.J. Langhorne, V.A. Squire, C. Fox and T.G. Haskell

339–344
Dynamic, in situ measurement of sea-ice characteristic length
Colin Fox, Tim G. Haskell and Hyuck Chung

345–349
Ice-floe kinematics in the Ross Sea marginal ice zone using GPS and accelerometers
Josh Downer and Timothy G. Haskell

350–354
Ocean wave speed in the Antarctic marginal ice zone
Colin Fox and Tim G. Haskell

355–360
Simulation of pancake-ice dynamics in a wave field
Mark A. Hopkins and Hayley H. Shen

361–367
A conceptual model for pancake-ice formation in a wave field
Hayley H. Shen, Stephen F. Ackley and Mark A. Hopkins

368–372
Ice formation in the Mertz Glacier polynya, East Antarctica, during winter
V.I. Lytle, A.P. Worby, R.A. Massom, M. Paget, I. Allison, X. Wu and A. Roberts

373–376
The Laptev Sea flaw polynya, Russian Arctic: effects on the mesoscale hydrography
I. Dmitrenko, J.A. Hölemann, K. Tyshko, V. Churun, S. Kirillov and H. Kassens

377–384
Sensible- and latent-heat-flux estimates over the Mertz Glacier polynya, East Antarctica, from in-flight measurements
Andrew Roberts, Ian Allison and Victoria I. Lytle

385–390
Interannual variability of the sea-ice-induced salt flux in the Greenland Sea
Leif Toudal and Max D. Coon

391–398
Effects of regional fast-ice and iceberg distributions on the behaviour of the Mertz Glacier polynya, East Antarctica
R.A. Massom, K.L. Hill, V.I. Lytle, A.P. Worby, M.J. Paget and I. Allison

399–406
Sea-ice growth and water-mass modification in the Mertz Glacier polynya, East Antarctica, during winter
N.L. Bindoff, G.D. Williams and I. Allison

407–412
Satellite observations of upper-ocean currents in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica
Michael L. Van Woert, Walter N. Meier, Cheng-Zhi Zou, Andy Archer, Andrea Pellegrini, Paolo Grigioni and Cheryl Bertoia

413–418
A case-study in tracking 1998 polynya ice dynamics in Smith Sound, North Water polynya region, Canadian Arctic, using RADARSAT-1 data
K.J. Wilson, D.J. King and D.G. Barber

419–424
The role of sea ice in the fresh-water budget of the Weddell Sea, Antarctica
R. Timmermann, A. Beckmann and H. H. Hellmer

425–429
The Ronne polynya of 1997/98: observations of air–ice–ocean interaction
S.F. Ackley, C.A. Geiger, J.C. King, E.C. Hunke and J. Comiso

430–436
Interannual variability of the Storfjorden (Svalbard) ice cover and ice production observed by ERS-2 SAR
Jörg Haarpaintner, Peter M. Haugan and Jean-Claude Gascard

437–443
Seasonal transformation of water masses, circulation and brine formation observed in Storfjorden, Svalbard
Jörg Haarpaintner, Jane O'Dwyer, Jean-Claude Gascard, Peter M. Haugan, Ursula Schauer and Svein sterhus

444–448
20th-century sea-ice variations from observational data
John E. Walsh and William L. Chapman

449–456
Observation of sea-ice thickness fluctuation in the seasonal ice-covered area during 1992–99 winters
Kazutaka Tateyama and Hiroyuki Enomoto

457–473
Satellite-observed variability and trend in sea-ice extent, surface temperature, albedo and clouds in the Arctic
Josefino C. Comiso

474–480
Sea ice and the stability of north and northeast Greenland floating glaciers
Niels Reeh, Henrik Hjmark Thomsen, Anthony K. Higgins and Anker Weidick

481–492
Arctic sea-ice oscillation: regional and seasonal perspectives
Jia Wang and Moto Ikeda

493–500
Variations of surface air temperature and sea-ice extent in the western Antarctic Peninsula region
Raymond C. Smith and Sharon E. Stammerjohn

501–506
Sea ice, as the glacial cycles' climate switch, and interhemispheric thermohaline teleconnections
Hezi Gildor and Eli Tziperman

507–512
Investigating the anomalous sea-ice conditions in the Canadian High Arctic (Queen Elizabeth Islands) during summer 1998
Sharon Jeffers, Tom A. Agnew, Bea Taylor Alt, Roger De Abreu and Steve McCourt

513–520
Response of the Northern Hemisphere sea ice to greenhouse forcing in a global climate model
Larissa Nazarenko, James Hansen, Nickolai Tausnev and Reto Ruedy

521–524
Sea ice and climate in 20th- and 21st-century simulations with a global atmosphere–ocean–ice model
John W. Weatherly and Julie M. Arblaster

525–532
Decadal variability in high northern latitudes as simulated by an intermediate-complexity climate model
H. Goosse, F.M. Selten, R.J. Haarsma and J.D. Opsteegh

533–538
An observational and modelling analysis of Laptev Sea (Arctic Ocean) ice variations during summer
K. Görgen, J. Bareiss, A. Helbig, A. Rinke and K. Dethloff

539–544
The Antarctic Circumpolar Wave in a global, high-resolution, coupled ice–ocean model
Yuxia Zhang and Albert J. Semtner

545–550
On large-scale shifts in the Arctic Ocean and sea-ice conditions during 1979–98
W. Maslowski, D.C. Marble, W. Walczowski and A.J. Semtner

551–554
Understanding climatic controls on sea-ice transport pathways in the Arctic Ocean
Andrey Proshutinsky, Mark Johnson and Tatiana Proshutinsky

555–559
Modelling the variability of the sea-ice conditions in the Baltic Sea under different climate conditions
Jari Haapala, Arja Juottonen, Marika Marnela, Matti Leppäranta and Heikki Tuomenvirta

560–566
Modeling of the Beaufort ice–ocean climatology change
Larissa Nazarenko and Nickolai Tausnev

567–576
The Arctic Ocean Circulation as simulated in a very high-resolution global ocean model (OCCAM)
Ye. Aksenov and A.C. Coward

577–584
Sensitivity of the Antarctic sea-ice distribution to oceanic heat flux in a coupled atmosphere–sea-ice model
Xingren Wu, W.F. Budd, A.P. Worby and Ian Allison

585–591
The simulation of Antarctic sea ice in the Hadley Centre Climate Model (HadCM3)
John Turner, William Connolley, Doug Cresswell and Steven Harangozo