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Annals of Glaciology - Volume 38

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Papers from the International Symposium on
Snow and Avalanches

held at Davos, Switzerland, 26 June 2003

Editor: Paul M.B. Föhn

1–8
On the fracture toughness of snow
Jürg Schweizer, Gerard Michot and Helmut O. K. Kirchner

9–14
Slab avalanche release viewed as interface fracture in a random medium
Michael Zaiser

15–20
Large-scale snow instability patterns in Western Canada: first analysis of the CAA-InfoEx database 1991--2002
Urs Gruber, Pascal Hägeli, David M. McClung and Evan Manners

21–24
Observation of internal structures of snow covers with a ground-penetrating radar
Tatsuya Yamamoto, Kenichi Matsuoka and Renji Naruse

25–29
Regular packing of grains as a model of snow structure
Vladimir N. Golubev and Sergey A. Sokratov

30–34
Experimental study of dense snow avalnches: velocity profiles in steady and fully developed flows
Alexi Bouchet, Mohamed Naaim, Hervé Bellot and Frédéric Ousset

35–38
Development of saltation layer of drifting snow
Takeshi Sato, Kenji Kosugi and Atsushi Sato

39–44
Three-dimensional geometric measurements of snow microstructural evolution under isothermal conditions
Frédéric Flin, Jean-Bruno Brzoska, Bernard Lesaffre, Cécile Coléou and Romeu André Pieritz

45–51
Slushflow hazard prediction and warning
Erik Hestnes and Steinar Bakkehøi

52–58
From snow X-ray microtomograph raw volume data to micromechanics modeling: first results
Romeu André Pieritz, Jean-Bruno Brzoska, Frédéric Flin, Bernard Lesaffre and Cécile Coléou

59–70
Two-dimensional numerical modelling of surface wind velocity and associated snowdrift effects over complex mountainous topography
Yves Durand, Gilbert Guyomarc'h, Laurent Mérindol and Javier G. Corripio

71–78
The splash function for snow from wind-tunnel measurements
James N. McElwaine, Norikazu Maeno and Konosuke Sugiura

79–83
The mass balance of a dry snow surface during a snowstorm
Richard Bintanja

84–88
Verification of nearest-neighbours interpretations in avalanche forecasting
Joachim Heierli, Ross S. Purves, Andreas Felber and Julia Kowalski

89–96
Hazard scenarios for avalanche actions on bridges
Stefan Margreth and Walter J. Ammann

97–100
Effect of summer snowfall on glacier mass balance
Johannes Oerlemans and E. J. (Lisette)Klok

101–105
Temporal variability in snow distribution
Eli Alfnes, Liss M. Andreassen, Rune V. Engeset, Thomas Skaugen and Hans-Christian Udnæs

106–114
Seasonal cycle of the snow coverage in the former Soviet Union and its relation with atmospheric circulation
Kunio Rikiishi and Junko Sakakibara

115–122
Risk assessment in avalanche-prone areas
Massimiliano Barbolini, Federica Cappabianca and Fabrizio Savi

123–129
SNOWPACK model simulations for snow in Hokkaido, Japan
Hiroyuki Hirashima, Kouichi Nishimura, Emiko Baba, Akihiro Hachikubo and Michael Lehning

130–134
Mechanical vibration responses of snow samples near the melting temperature
Iwao Takei and Norikazu Maeno

135–138
Experimental and numerical study of granular flow and fence interaction
Thierry Faug, Mohammed Naaim and Florence Naaim-Bouvet

139–144
Calculation of two-dimensional avalanche velocities from opto-electronic sensors
Jim N. McElwaine

145–149
A constitutive law for snow taking into account compressibility
Aloke Mishra and Punit Mahajan

150–158
Validation of the energy budget of an alpine snowpack simulated by several snow models (SnowMIP project)
Pierre Etchevers, Eric Martin, Ross Brown, Charles Fierz, Yves Lejeune, Eric Bazile, Aaron Boone, Yong-Jiu Dai, Richard Essery, Alberto Fernandez, Yeugeniy Gusev, Rachel Jordan, Victor Koren, Eva Kowalczyk, N. Olga Nasonova, R. David Pyles, Adam Schlosser, Andrey B. Shmakin, Tatiana G. Smirnova, Ulrich Strasser, Diana Verseghy, Takeshi Yamazaki and Zong-Liang Yang

159–165
Using vegetation to characterize the avalanche of Canal del Roc Roig, Vall de Núria, eastern Pyrenees, Spain
Ricard Molina, Elena Muntán, Laia Andreu, Glòria Furdada, Pere Oller, Emilia Gutiérrez, Pere Martínez and Joan Manuel Vilaplana

166–172
A nearest-neighbour model for forecasting skier-triggered dry-slab avalanches on persistent weak layers in the Columbia Mountains, Canada
Antonia Zeidler and Bruce Jamieson

173–179
Dendrochronological study of the Canal del Roc Roig avalanche path: first results of the Aludex project in the Pyrenees
Elena Muntán, Laia Andreu, Pere Oller, Emilia Gutiérrez and Pere Martínez

180–186
Time-variant snow distribution for use in hydrological models
Thomas Skaugen, Eli Alfnes, Elin G. Langsholt and Hans-Christian Udnæs

187–194
Heat flow from wet to dry snowpack layers and associated faceting
Bruce Jamieson and Charles Fierz

195–201
Implications of spatial distributions of snow mass and melt rate for snow-cover depletion: observations in a sub-arctic mountain catchment
John Pomeroy, Richard Essery and Brenda Toth

202–208
Spatial variability of micropenetration resistance in snow layers on a small slope
Kalle Kronholm, Martin Schneebeli and Jürg Schweizer

209–214
Hierarchy theory as a conceptual framework for scale issues in avalanche-forecast modeling
Pascal Hägeli and David M. McClung

215–222
Verified combination of numerical weather- and avalanche prediction models at Kootenay Pass, British Columbia, Canada
Claudia Roeger, David M. McClung and Roland Stull

223–228
Changes in the shear strength and micro-penetration hardness of a buried surface-hoar layer
Karl W. Birkeland, Kalle Kronholm, Martin Schneebeli and Christine Pielmeier

229–237
Linear trends of the length of snow-cover season in the Northern Hemisphere as observed by satellites in the period 1972-2000
Kunio Rikiishi, Eisuke Hashiyai and Masafumi Imai

238–244
Estimating snow conditions in Finland in the late 21st century using the SNOWPACK-model with regional climate scenario data as input
Sirpa Rasmus, Jouni Räisänen and Michael Lehning

245–252
Operational sub-pixel snow mapping over the Alps with NOAA AVHRR data
Nando Foppa, Stefan Wunderle, Adrian Hauser, David Oesch and Florian Kuchen

253–260
Scales of the spatial heterogeneity for perennial and seasonal snow layers
Matthew Sturm and Carl Benson

261–265
Implications of spatial distributions of snow mass and melt rate for snow-cover depletion: theoretical considerations
Richard Essery and John Pomeroy

266–272
Application of the numerical snowpack model (SNOWPACK) to the wet-snow region in Japan
Satoru Yamaguchi, Atsushi Sato and Michael Lehning

273–278
A new in-situ sensor for large-scale snow cover monitoring
Mannfred Stähli, Markus Stacheder, David Gustafsson, Stefan Schläger, Martin Schneebeli and Alexander Brandelik

279–284
Measurements and model calculations of the solar shortwave fluxes in snow on Summit, Greenland
Ingo Meirold-Mautmer and Michael Lehning

285–290
Avalanche hazard zoning in Iceland based on individual risk
Þorsteinn Arnalds, Kristján Jónasson and Sven Sigurðsson

291–298
The temperature- and density-dependent acoustic emission response of snow in monoaxial compression tests
Carlo Scapozza, Felix Bucher, Peter Amann, Walter J. Ammann and Perry Bartelt

299–304
Climatic response of snow depth to recent warmer winter seasons in heavy snowfall areas in Japan
Masaaki Ishizaka

305–308
Shear strength and angle repose of snow layers including graupel
Osamu Abe

309–313
Modeling the density variation in the shallow firn layer
Jun Li and H. Jay Zwally

314–318
Impact of artificial snow and ski-slope grooming on snowpack properties and soil thermal regime in a sub-alpine ski area
Thomas Keller, Christine Pielmeier, Christian Rixen, Florian Gadient, David Gustafsson and Manfred Stähli

319–324
A system for prediction of avalanche hazard in the windy climate of Iceland
Svanbjörg H. Haraldsdóttir, Haraldur Ólafsson, Yves Durand, Gérald Giraud and Laurent Mérindol

325–330
Wind-tunnel study of snow-drift around avalanche defense structures
Christian Jaedicke, Florence Naaim-Bouvet and Matthias Granig

331–338
Modelling instability for the snow cover model SNOWPACK
Michael Lehning, Charles Fierz, Bob Brown and Bruce Jamieson

339–342
Numerical simulation of elastic stress in the microstructure of snow
Martin Schneebeli

343–350
Numerical study of the time development of drifting snow and its relation to the spatial development
Masaki Nemoto, Kouichi Nishimura, Syunichi Kobayashi and Kaoru Izumi

351–356
The Monte-Carlo simulation of avalanche-type processes
A. N. Bozhinskiy

357–362
Dynamics of avalanches along general mountain slopes
Shiva Prasad Pudasaini, Yongqi Wang and Kolumban Hutter

363–372
Statistical avalanche-runout estimation for short slopes in Canada
Alan S. T. Jones and Bruce Jamieson

373–378
Dense and powder avalanches: momentum reduction generated by a dam
Florence Naaim-Bouvet, Mohammed Naaim and Thierry Faug

379–383
Numerical simulations of dense clouds on steep slopes: application to powder-snow avalanches
Jocelyn Étienne, Pierre Saramito and Emil J. Hopfinger

384–392
Possible erosion mechanisms in snow avalanches
Peter Gauer and Dieter Issler

393–398
Avalanche simulation with SAMOS
Peter Sampl and Thomas Zwinger