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Annals of Glaciology
Volume 4

Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Applied Glaciology

held in New Hampshire, U.S.A.,
23-27 August 1982
Cover: Annals Vol. 4

Editor: S.C. Colbeck

Contents

1
Second syposium on applied glaciology: opening comments
Colonel Wayne A. Hanson

3-9
Metamorphism of dry snow as a result of temperature gradient and vapor density differences
E.E. Adams and R.L. Brown

10-13
Effective shear viscosity and effective bulk viscosity of firn of a temperate glacier (Kesselwandferner, Ötztal Alps, 1967-1978)
Walter Ambach and Heinrich Eisner

14-18
Description and analysis of a 20-year (1960-79) digital ice- concentration database for the Great Lakes of North America
Raymond A. Assel

19-23
Contribution to the modelling of the ice accretion process: ice density variation with the impacted surface angle
M. Bain and J.F. Gayet

24-29
Calculation of snow avalanche runout distance
S. Bakkehøi, U. Domaas and K. Lied

30-36
A comparison of unsteady wave propagation for various snowpack properties
R.L. Brown

37-41
A turbulent mixture theory for the atmospheric mixture of snow and air
Rand Decker and R.L. Brown

42-46
A biviscous modified Bingham model of snow avalanche motion
J.D. Dent and T.E. Lang

47-51
Time-dependent deformation behaviour of structures in snow, firn or ice
Rudolf Dörr and Hans L. Jessberger

52-57
Distribution of snow drifts on ridge slopes: measurements and theoretical approximations
Paul M.B. Föhn and Roland Meister

58-65
On measuring flexural properties of ice using cantilever beams
R.M.W. Frederking and G.W. Timco

66-72
Icing cloud microstructure from in situ measurements
J.F. Gayet and M. Bain

73-78
Creep of columnar-grained ice at low stresses
L.W. Gold

79-84
Measurements and analyses of velocity profiles and frazil ice-crystal rise velocities during periods of frazil-ice formation in rivers
J.P. Gosink and T.E. Osterkamp

85-90
Frequency and characteristics of glacier floods in the Swiss Alps
Wilfried Haeberli

91-98
Subglacial processes at Bondhusbreen, Norway: preliminary results
Jon Ove Hagen, Bjørn Wold, Olav Liestøl, Gunnar Østrem and Johan Ludvig Sollid

99-104
Reconnaissance of the glaciers of the Susitna River basin in connection with proposed hydroelectric development
W.D. Harrison, B.T. Drage, S. Bredthauer, D. Johnson, C. Schoch and A.B. Follett

105-109
Comparison between different yield functions for saline ice
F.U. Häusler

110-115
On forecasting mesoscale ice dynamics and build-up
W.D. Hibler III, Ingemar Udin and Anders Ullerstig

116-123
Icebergs: their physical dimensions and the presentation and application of measured data
I.Stuart Hotzel and John D. Miller

124-128
A surface integral method for determining ice loads on offshore structures from in situ measurements
Jerome B. Johnson

129-132
Effect of sample and grain size on the compressive strength of ice
Stephen J. Jones and H.A.M. Chew

133-140
Gravity measurements in permafrost terrain containing massive ground ice
K. Kawasaki, T.E. Osterkamp, R.W. Jurick and J. Kienle

141-146
Estimates of ocean currents using a Labrador sea ice model
T.E. Keliher and J.S. Foley

147-151
Automatic collection of tilt and strain data from tabular icebergs
Monica Kristensen and Vernon A. Squire

152-157
Modelling of Antarctic tabular icebergs in ocean waves
Monica Kristensen and Vernon A. Squire

158-162
Basal surface-layer properties in flowing snow
T.E. Lang and J.D. Dent

163-169
Laboratory experiments on crystal orientation in NaCl ice
Patricia J. Langhorne

170-173
Determination of avalanche dynamics friction coefficients from measured speeds
D.M. McClung and P.A. Schaerer

174-179
Icing measurements on fixed and rotating cyclinders
P. McComber, J.-L. Laforte, D. Bouchard and D.D. Nguyen

180-187
Indentation of an S2 floating ice sheet in the brittle range
B. Michel and D. Blanchet

188-191
Snow control studies of elevated buildings in the Antarctic
Hiromi Mitsuhashi, Toshio Hannuki, Toshio Sato and Kou Kusunoki

192-197
Experimental studies on snow accretion at subzero temperatures
Yukiko Mizuno and Gorow Wakahama

198-203
Modelling the flow of mass and energy within a snowpack for hydrological forecasting
E.M. Morris

204-208
Measurements on air porosity of sea ice
Masayoshi Nakawo

209-215
Water temperature measurements in turbulent streams during periods of frazil-ice formation
T.E. Osterkamp, R.E. Gilfilian, J.P. Gosink and C.S. Benson

216-221
Fracture and its role in determining ice forces on offshore structures
A.C. Palmer, D.J. Goodman, M.F. Ashby, A.G. Evans, J.W. Hutchinson and A.R.S. Ponter

222-227
On the placement and mass of avalanche explosives: experience with helicopter bombing and preplanted charges
R. Perla and K. Everts

228-235
The lobe structure in ice accreted on an aluminium conductor in the presence of a DC electric field
Luan C. Phan, Jean-Louis Laforte and Du D. Nguyen

236-240
Snow and slush on floating lake ice
Hans Röthlisberger

241-245
An evaluation of shock waves in unsaturated wet snow
A. Sato and R.L. Brown

246-252
Sea-ice investigations in the Weddell Sea during the German Antarctic expedition 1979-80
Joachim Schwarz

253-259
Field test 1 of compressive strength of first-year sea ice
N.K. Sinha

260-265
Experimental determination of the buckling loads of floating ice sheets
D.S. Sodhi, F.D. Haynes, K. Kato and K. Hirayama

266-270
Experiments on ice ride-up and pile-up
D.S. Sodhi, K. Hirayama, F.D. Haynes and K. Kato

271-276
Snow avalanches and acoustic emissions
R.A. Sommerfeld and H. Gubler

277-282
Numerical modelling of realistic ice floes in ocean waves
Vernon A. Squire

283-288
Mapping ice-sheet margins from radar altimetry data
Robert H. Thomas, Thomas V. Martin and H.Jay Zwally

289-293
Uniaxial and plane-strain compressive strength of model ice
G.W. Timco

295
Abstract
Two calving laws for grounded iceberg-calving glaciers
C.S. Brown, W.G. Sikonia, Austin Post, L.A. Rasmussen and M.F. Meier

295
Abstract
The predicted behavior of Griesgletscher, Wallis, Switzerland, and its possible threat to a nearby dam
Robert Bindschadler

296
Abstract
On the use of mixture theories to model heat and mass transport in mountain snowpack
R.L. Brown and E.E. Adams

297
Abstract
Properties of debris-laden ice: application to the flow response of the glaciers on Mount St. Helens
Melinda M. Brugman

297
Abstract
Modelling techniques in applied glaciology: numerical modelling of avalanches
G. Brugnot

298
Abstract
Numerical modelling of glacier response to a perturbation in thickness
Keith Echelmeyer

298
Abstract
Measuring snow water equivalent by cosmic radiation
W. Fritzsche

299
Abstract
Air bubble stratigraphy of lake ice covers
Richard Heron

300
Abstract
Implications of the time required for minimum and tertiary creep rates for ice mining and tunnel closure
T.H. Jacka and W.F. Budd

301
Abstract
Use of satellite synthetic aperture radar imagery in arctic marine design and sea-ice studies
David Lapp and René O. Ramseier

301
Abstract
Measurement of snow creep pressures on an avalanche defence structure
J.O. Larsen, D.M. McClung and S.B. Hansen

302
Abstract
Preventing a collapse of the West Antarctic ice sheet: civil engineering on a continental scale
D.R. MacAyeal

302
Abstract
Modelling of ice accretion on wires
Lasse Makkonen

303
Abstract
Methodology and current status of the prediction of the drastic retreat of Columbia Glacier, Alaska
M.F. Meier, L.A. Rasmussen and W.G. Sikonia

304
Abstract
Seismic moment, stress drop, strain energy, dislocation radius, and location of seismic acoustic emissions associated with a high alpine snowpack at Berthoud Pass, Colorado
Charles Cleland Rosé

304
Abstract
A contribution to avalanche dynamics: a formal and an exact solution of the Voellmy/Perla two-parametric equation of motion
Bonsak Schieldrop

305
Abstract
The tensile strength of polycrystalline ice
E.M. Schulson and J.H. Currier

306
Abstract
Vertical lifting ice forces caused by a rising water level, and their action on a vertical slender structure (pile)
Per Tryde

307-314
Abstract
The Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research at Weissfluhjoch/Davos: the first five years (1943 to 1948)
Marcel R. De Quervain