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Annals of Glaciology
Volume 6

Proceedings of the Symposium on Snow and Ice Processes at the Earth's Surface

held at Sapporo, Japan,
2-7 September 1984
Cover: Annals Vol. 6

Editor: R.L. Brown

Contents

1-4
A contribution to the prediction of slush avalanches
Erik Hestnes

5-8
Avalanche flow dynamics with material locking
Theodore E. Lang, Tsutomu Nakamura, Jimmie D. Dent and Mario Martinelli Jr.

9-14
Characteristics of flowing snow and avalanche impact pressures
D.M. McClung and P.A. Schaerer

15-18
Computer study of snow avalanche startup dynamics
Tsutomu Nakamura, Osamu Abe, Natsuo Numano and Theodore E. Lang

19-22
Measurement of avalanche speeds and forces: instrumentation and preliminary results of the Ryggfonn Project
H. Norem, T. Kvisterøy and B.D. Evensen

23-25
Meteorological conditions that initiate slushflows in the central Brooks Range, Alaska
Lawrence J. Onesti

26-34
Measurement and analysis of the motion of dense flow avalanches
B. Salm and H. Gubler

35-38
Errors and corrections in calculation of heat flux in Antarctic surface snow
Tokio Kikuchi, Makoto Wada and Takashi Yamanouchi

39-42
Air and water-vapour convection in snow
N. Klever

43-47
Experiments on thermal convection in snow
D. Powers, S.C. Colbeck and K. O'Neill

48-52
Modelling a snowdrift by means of activated clay particles
Yutaka Anno

53-58
Two dimensional solutions for a turbulent continuum theory for the atmospheric mixture of snow and air
Rand Decker and R.L. Brown

59-62
The effect of blowing snow on katabatic winds in Antarctica
Yuji Kodama, Gerd Wendler and Joan Gosink

63-67
Wind-tunnel experiments on blowing snow
N. Maeno, R. Naruse, K. Nishimura, I. Takei, T. Ebinuma, S. Kobayashi, H. Nishimura, Y. Kaneda and T. Ishida

68-70
Design criteria and location of snow fences
Harald Norem

71-75
Characteristics of drifting snow at Mizuho Station, Antarctica
Shuhei Takahashi

76-78
Climatic shift of the equilibrium line: Kuhn's concept applied to the Greenland ice cap
Walter Ambach

79-82
Grain growth and mechanical behaviour of polar ice
P. Duval

83-86
Experimental studies on densification and pressure-sintering of ice
Takao Ebinuma and Norikazu Maeno

87-91
Field frost heave prediction related to ice segregation processes during soil freezing
Masami Fukuda and Seiiti Kinosita

92-94
Acidity of snow and its reduction by akaline aerosols
Motoi Kumai

95-99
Settlement force on a beam in snowpack by computer modeling
Theodore E. Lang, Hideomi Nakamura and Osamu Abe

100-104
Measurements of thermal parameters in Antarctic snow and firn
Manfred A. Lange

105-107
Studies on structures and physical properties of snow on Mizuho Plateau, Antarctica
Hiroshi Nishimura and Norikazu Maeno

108-112
Enclosure of air during metamorphosis of dry firn to ice
B. Stauffer, J. Schwander and H. Oeschger

113-117
Estimation and effects of internal accumulation on five glaciers in Alaska
D.C. Trabant and L.R. Mayo

118-122
The extinction and absorption of solar radiation within a snow cover
Hiroshi Fukami, Kenji Kojima and Hideaki Aburakawa

123-125
Effect of snow cover on time lag of runoff from a watershed
Daiji Kobayashi and Hideaki Motoyama

126-129
Grain coarsening of snow particles immersed in water and solutions
Katutosi Tusima

130-134
Formation processes of ice fabric pattern in ice sheets
N. Azuma and A. Higashi

135-137
Thermally and mechanically induced regelation of ice
Kaoru Horiguchi and R.D. Miller

138-141
On the internal melting phenomenon (puddle formation) in fast sea ice, East Antarctica
Nobuyoshi Ishikawa and Shun'ichi Kobayashi

142-145
The effect of roughness on the rate of ice accretion on a cylinder
Lasse Makkonen and J.R. Stallabrass

146-149
On the relationship of thermodynamic and physical properties of polymers with ice adhesion
H. Murase and K. Nanishi

150-153
Ice formation and ice structure on Law Dome, Antarctica
Xie Zichu

154-157
Energy exchange and its influence factors on mountain glaciers in west China
Bai Zhongyuan and Yu Xinzhi

158-160
Energy balance calculations for the ablation period 1982 at Vernagtferner, Oetztal Alps
Heidi Escher-Vetter

161-163
Temperature and accumulation of high altitude firn in the Alps
Wilfried Haeberli and Jürg Alean

164-167
Bidirectional reflectance of polar and alpine snow surfaces
M. Kuhn

168-170
Rate determining processes of sea ice growth
T. Kuroda

171-173
Oceanic heat flux as a component of the heat budget of sea ice
M.P. Langleben

174-177
Heat balance at the snow surface in a katabatic wind zone, East Antarctica
Tetsuo Ohata, Nobuyoshi Ishikawa, Shun'ichi Kobayashi and Sadao Kawaguchi

178-181
Heat exchange and surface conditions in North Water, northern Baffin Bay
K. Steffen and A. Ohmura

182-186
Annual salt and energy budget beneath an Antarctic fast ice cover
Ian Allison, C.M. Tivendale and G.R. Copson

187-191
Ice front fluctuations in the eastern and southern Weddell Sea
Manfred A. Lange and Heinz Kohnen

192-194
Movements of marginal pack ice off the Okhotsk Sea coast of Hokkaido
Nobuo Ono

195-199
An Arctic iceberg deterioration field study and model simulations
S. Venkatesh, M. El-Tahan and P.T. Mitten

200-202
On brine drainage channels of young sea ice
Masaaki Wakatsuchi and Takashi Saito

203-206
Static dielectric constant as a textural index of snow
A. Denoth

207-210
Snow stratigraphy measured by an active microwave system
Kazuo Fujino, Gorow Wakahama, Masahiro Suzuki, Tadashi Matsumoto and Daisuke Kuroiwa

211-214
The effect of snow distribution on gamma-ray survey of snow cover
Morten Johnsrud

215-217
Determination of the principal stresses of a snow cover on a mountain slope using snow pressure gauges
Mitsuo Oh'izumi and Tosio Huzioka

218-221
Experimental study on direct shear strength of sea ice
Hiroshi Saeki, Toshiyuki Ono, Niu en Zhong and Naoki Nakazawa

222-224
Morphological instability of polyhedral ice crystals growing in air at low temperatures
T. Gonda and H. Gomi

225-228
Ice accretion under natural and laboratory conditions
K. Itagaki, G.E. Lemieux and H.W. Bosworth

229-231
Katabatic snow storms in stable atmospheric conditions at Mizuho station, Antarctica
Shun'ichi Kobayashi, Nobuyoshi Ishikawa and Tetsuo Ohata

232-234
Formation mechanisms of snow crystals at low temperature
Noboru Sato and Katsuhiro Kikuchi

235-237
Thermal modification of air moving over melting snow surfaces
Hiroshi Takahara and Keiji Higuchi

238-241
Effects of drifting snow on surface radiation budget in the katabatic wind zone, Antarctica
Takashi Yamanouchi and Sadao Kawaguchi

242-245
Comparison of ice crystals grown from vapour in varying conditions
Akira Yamashita, Asaharu Asano and Takayuki Ohno

246-247
A calorimeter for measuring free water content of wet snow
Eizi Akitaya

248-249
Ice avalanche activity and mass balance of a high-altitude hanging glacier in the Swiss Alps
Jürg Alean

250-251
Remote sensing of snow in high mountain basins in Norway
T. Andersen and N. Haakensen

252-253
Detection of an ice-forming area by radar and satellite
Masaaki Aota, Masayuki Oi, Masao Ishikawa and Hiroki Fukushi

254-255
Measurements of daily variations in the subsurface wetness gradient
A. Denoth and A. Foglar

256-257
Release mechanism of an avalanche on a slope covered with bamboo bushes
Yasoichi Endo

258-260
Fluctuations of sedimentary environments of the Gyajo Glacier, Khumbu region, East Nepal
Hiroji Fushimi, Kokichi Kamiyama, Kouichi Kitaoka and Koichi Ikegami

261-262
Effects of precipitation on the isotopic composition of falling snow particles
K. Higuchi, A. Tokuoka and O. Watanabe

263-264
Transition in preferred orientation of polycrystalline ice from repeated recrystallization
Huang Maohuan, M. Ohtomo and G. Wakahama

265-266
Visibility in blowing snow observed by the luminance contrast
Keishi Ishimoto and Yoshifumi Fukuzawa

267-268
Hardness of wet snow
Kaoru Izumi and Eizi Akitaya

269-271
Structure and falling motion of early snowflakes
Masahiro Kajikawa

272-273
Macropores in snowpacks of Sierra Nevada
Richard Kattelmann

274-275
Movement of grain boundary in sea ice
Toshiyuki Kawamura

276-277
Melting and heat exchange at the bottom of a snow cover
Kenji Kojima and Hideaki Motoyama

278-280
Mechanical properties of first year sea ice in Saroma lagoon
Hisao Matsushita and Nobuyoshi Yashima

281-283
Development of an automatic ice fabric analyser
Y. Mori, T. Hondoh and A. Higashi

284-286
Measurement of settlement forces on horizontal beams buried in snow cover
Hideomi Nakamura and Osamu Abe

287-288
Structural characteristics of snow drifts and cornices
Renji Naruse, Hiroshi Nishimura and Norikazu Maeno

289-291
Internal radio-echo reflections of polar snow covers in relation to acidic layers and density fluctuations
Fumihiko Nishio and Hirokazu Ohmae

292-294
Mechanical instability of snowcover with saturated layer
Yasuaki Nohguchi

295-297
Thickness and structure of Antarctic sea ice measured by drilling and impulse radar
Hirokazu Ohmae and Fumihiko Nishio

298-299
Surface layer salinity of young sea ice
Nobuo Ono and Takashi Kasai

300-302
Net accumulation and oxygen isotope composition of snow on Mizuho Plateau, Antarctica
Kazuhide Satow and Okitsugu Watanabe

303-304
Measurement of strains and pressure in a snow cover on a slope
Hiromu Shimizu, Eizi Akitaya, Mitsuo Oh'izumi and Yauso Hirabayashi

305
Comparison of mechanical test on the Dye-3, Greenland ice core and artificial laboratory ice
H. Shoji and C.C. Langway Jr.

306-308
Sensing of snowpack melting by an active microwave system with fixed frequency
Masahiro Suzuki, Tadashi Matsumoto, Daisuke Kuroiwa, Kazuo Fujino and Gorow Wakahama

309-310
Salination of snow on sea ice and formation of snow ice
Takatoshi Takizawa

311-313
Light attenuation and visibility in blowing snow
Masao Takeuchi and Yoshifumi Fukuzawa

314-315
Mechanism of formation of radially-grown meltpatterns on the surface of ice
Akio Toukairin

316-317
Ablation rates on the ceiling of a snow tunnel over a stream
Takahiko Uematsu

318-320
Mass balance study of a glacier system from hydrological observations in Langtang valley, Nepal Himalaya
Tomomi Yamada, Hideaki Motoyama and Kadgha Bdr. Thapa

321
Abstract
An experimental study on the influence of darkening material on radiation and melting rate on an ice-snow surface and the results of their practical application
Bai Zhongyuan, Xie Zichu and Ding Liangfu

321-322
Abstract
Snow moisture meters
A. Denoth and A. Fogler

322
Abstract
Heat balance of a maritime glacier in Gongga mountains, and a discussion of imbalance
Han Yuan-jie

323
Abstract
Photographic studies on snowfall intensity in connection with visibility in a snowfall
H. Konishi, T. Endoh, Y. Fujiyoshi and G. Wakahama

324
Abstract
Crystal structure of ice accreted on an ice substrate
O. Nasello, L. Levi and F. Prodi

325
Abstract
Changes in snow structure induced by temperature gradients
R. Perla and C.S.L. Ommanney

326
Abstract
A study of blowing snow by the new index
Sei-iti Sato

327
Abstract
Regional characteristics of snow cover in central Japan from the standpoints of stable isotopic processes, chemical content and snow metamorphism
O. Watanabe, S. Takenaka, H. Takahara and H. Iida

328
Abstract
Isotopic diffusion in polar firn
I.M. Whillans, H. Clausen and P. Grootes

329
Abstract
Internal freezing of snow cover due to its own cold heat sources
Y. Yamada and T. Ikarashi

329
Abstract
Characteristics of stable isotopes in glaciers of the high mountains of China
Wu Xiaoling, Xie Zichu, Hisao Wushiku and Nobuko Kanamori