Fundamental Glaciology by Kolumban Hutter
The book contains (i) Fundamental Physics and Materials Technology of Ice and (ii) Damage Mechanics of Ice. In (i) it treats fundamentals of continuum thermodynamics dealing with material response: material objectivity, symmetry, isotropy, the second law as an entropy imbalance for nonlinear viscoelastic bodies and accounting for primary, secondary and tertiary creep and phase change processes. Ice obeys Glen’s flow law or a Reiner–Riwlin flow law, or various Rivlin–Ericksen materials. In (ii), damage of ice is dealt by subscale-internal cracks. It is expressed as a functional relation between the stresses of the damaged and the virgin material. This functional also depends on a tensorial damage variable for which an objective evolution equation involving a damage production term is postulated.